Article 44 gives the main principle for the transfer of personal data outside of the EU. It prohibits all transfers that do not fulfil the requirements of the GDPR.
There are several types of measures that can fulfil the requirements of the GDPR. One is an adequacy decision, where the European Commission concludes that the level of protection is in line with the GDPR. Several other measures exist in Chapter V of the GDPR, consisting of Articles 44 – 50.
The aim of Article 44 is to not prevent the flow of personal data but to ensure the data sufficient safety.