This article regulates the processing of special category data. By special category data means data that needs more protection than regular data. Therefore, Art. 9 GDPR state that in order to process this type of data, certain requirements have to be met.
Special category data is defined in the GDPR as:
- personal data regarding racial or ethnic origin;
- personal data that reveals political opinions;
- personal data about religious or philosophical beliefs;
- personal data that shows trade union membership;
- genetic data;
- biometric data;
- data concerning an individuals health;
- data concerning sex life; and
- data concerning the sexual orientation of a person.
To process data that can relate to any of the categories mentioned above, the controller needs to fulfil one on the reasons stated in Art. 9(2). This can, for example, be an explicit consent from the data subject or that the processing is necessary to protect the vital interest of the data subject or other.